In coming to the decision to place POISON on our home spaces, this group believes that sufficient research or consideration was not done (See Lack of Due Diligence) by the Board or by the Community Manager.

As a result, this post lists extensive research done by this group.

There are several points to consider:

  • Are there more effective alternatives to poison bait? YES
  • Have structural improvements been done to the building to discourage residence? NO
  • What is the goal of a “pest control” business? To perpetuate a cycle of business. See POISON CYCLE.
  • Are humans (including children) at risk with poison bait? YES
  • Are pets at risk with poison bait? YES
  • Is wildlife at risk with poison bait? YES


(Sept 5, 2019) Research added from

1) “The stations are tamper resistant”

Risks for Pets

However, tamper-resistant bait boxes will not protect pets from secondary poisoning.

Unfortunately, bait stations cannot stop all routes of exposure. House sparrows have been seen entering bait stations in urban environments. Other wildlife species may disturb and attempt to break in to bait stations. Cockroaches and other invertebrate species enter bait stations to feed. They are not affected by anticoagulant products but scatter bait material and carry the poison in their own bodies raising the potential for secondary poisoning.

2) “authorized by the United Stated Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)”

Please note that legality does not equate to safety or morality. Most of these poisons are second generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs). Due to the high risk level, SGARs are NOT available to the general public.

Several local municipalities in the US have successfully rejected the usage of rodenticides, and more actions are currently underway. From Bill “AB-1788 Pesticides: use of anticoagulants.”, the State of California: :

While all anticoagulant rodenticides have a harmful impact on nontarget animals, second generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs) are particularly dangerous to nontarget wildlife as SGARs are higher potency than prior generations and a single dose has a half-life of more than 100 days in a rodent’s liver. Due to high toxicity and concern for impact on nontarget wildlife, the Department of Pesticide Regulation banned consumer sales and use of SGARs in 2014, restricting their purchase and use to certified pesticide applicators.

Despite the 2014 regulations issued by the Department of Pesticide Regulation, scientific research and state studies have found no significant reduction in the number of nontarget wildlife with detectable levels of SGARs in their system. From 2014 through 2018, the Department of Fish and Wildlife found SGARs in more than 90 percent of tested mountain lions, 88 percent of tested bobcats, 85 percent of protected Pacific fishers tested, and 70 percent of northern spotted owls tested. Such data indicates that a consumer sales and use ban of SGARs has been insufficient to reduce rodenticide exposure in nontarget animals and further steps must be taken.

Rodenticides can be counterproductive to rodent control by poisoning, harming, and killing natural predators that help regulate rodent populations throughout California.

Additional scientific information about rodenticides (Oregon State University):

Rodenticide baits are made to attract animals. Pets and wildlife may take the bait if they find it. When an animal eats the bait directly, it is called primary poisoning. Secondary poisoning is caused by eating poisoned prey. It may also be called relay toxicosis.

You may find that there are other things you can do to control rodents, in addition to using rodenticides. Find out what kind of rodent you have and learn about its habits, abilities, likes and dislikes. Try to block entry points and remove any food and water sources. This is called Integrated Pest Management (IPM).

Additional scientific information regarding rodenticides (Safe Rodent Control Resource Center) :

The information presented on this website is backed by solid scientific data based on studies from well-regarded sources, as well as recommendations from government agencies, such as EPA. It examines the risks of using rodenticides, guidelines for maintaining a rodent-free home and ways to treat a rodent infestation. Learn how the state and federal government regulate rodenticides.

Dogs, cats, and other domesticated animals are all too commonly exposed to toxic rodenticide baits. Sadly, these chemicals make the top-ten list of toxins responsible for pet poisonings, according to American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA). The US EPA states that more than 100 pet deaths are reported each year from exposure to rodenticides.

Rodenticides are not only poisonous for rodents. Rodent baits can be lethal to any mammal or bird that ingests them or feeds on a poisoned rodent. That’s why controlling rodents with rodenticide baits puts pets at high risk of becoming ill or dying – either through direct ingestion (primary poisoning) or by eating poisoned rodents (secondary poisoning).

Safeguarding your home from rats, mice, and other rodents doesn’t require the use of potentially hazardous poisons. Safe, effective, and affordable solutions can help you rodent-proof your home while ensuring the health of your pets.

However, tamper-resistant bait boxes will not protect pets from secondary poisoning.

Risks for Wildlife

Rodenticides are designed to kill mammals such as rats and mice. It should therefore come as no surprise that these products commonly poison non-target wildlife species. Numerous studies have documented harm to mammals and birds. Other vertebrate species, such as reptiles and amphibians, are also at risk. Most rodenticides work by disrupting the normal blood clotting or coagulation process so that dosed individuals suffer from uncontrolled bleeding or hemorrhaging. This hemorrhaging can occur spontaneously or from any cuts or scratches. Because internal hemorrhaging is difficult to spot, often the only indication of poisoning in exposed wildlife is that they are weak or listless. Signs of bleeding from the nose or mouth may be visible on occasion. Affected wildlife may be more likely to crash into structures or moving vehicles or to be killed by predators. This makes these poisonings even more difficult to document.

Unfortunately, bait stations cannot stop all routes of exposure. House sparrows have been seen entering bait stations in urban environments. Other wildlife species may disturb and attempt to break in to bait stations. Cockroaches and other invertebrate species enter bait stations to feed. They are not affected by anticoagulant products but scatter bait material and carry the poison in their own bodies raising the potential for secondary poisoning.

Rats and mice that feed on these baits can take several days to die. The poisoned rodents become increasingly weak, making them easy prey for predators. Hungry raptors or other wildlife can receive a lethal dose when they feed on the poisoned rats and mice. This is tragic not merely because hawks, owls, foxes and other animals are dying, but because wildlife predators provide us with valuable rodent control services – unless of course we kill them first.

Rodenticides may now be the single most important source of mortality for some wildlife species. Where second-generation compounds are used, entire food chains are contaminated. Residues are even detected in species that typically feed on birds rather than on rodents.

Rodenticides: Background & Hazards

The first line of defense against rodents should be exclusion and trapping. These methods do not pose a poisoning risk to children, pets and wildlife.

Regulatory Outlook

In addition to federal regulation, rodenticides are typically regulated at the state level by the responsible state agency. In addition to meeting federal registration requirements under FIFRA, manufacturers may also need to meet particular state law requirements.

In practice, most states do not have separate registration systems. However, some states, such as California, New York, Florida and Washington, do have additional regulatory review of pesticides.

Use of second-generation anticoagulants under state and federal restrictions still left harmed wildlife that consumed poisoned rodents. Because of the widespread exposure of wildlife to second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides, in 2019, Cal DPR once again opened a re-evaluation of second generation anticoagulant rodenticides to determine what additional restrictions were needed to reduce the significant adverse impacts to wildlife.

From the National Park Service:

Avoiding Unintentional Poisoning

Avoiding Unintentional Poisoning

Take Action Against Anticoagulant Rodenticides:

If your rodent problem is too big for you to control, contact a pest-exclusion company that uses sustainable practices. Pest control companies that practice Integrated Pest Management should be able to help you get to the root of the problem; seal up holes and trap rodents without the use of poisons.

EVEN THE EPA suggests using alternate methods before resorting to poison: “Identify and prevent rodent infestations — it is always a good idea to try these simple methods first.”

3) “Dogs and cats are not able to get into the bait inside.”

Rats and mice that feed on these baits can take several days to die. The poisoned rodents become increasingly weak, making them easy prey for predators. Hungry raptors or other wildlife can receive a lethal dose when they feed on the poisoned rats and mice.

Smaller mammals, such as squirrels or chipmunks can enter the boxes. Any animal that enters can also exit. Once a contaminated animal is in the environment, any other animal can become poisoned by encountering and / or eating the contaminated animal. This is called “relay toxicosis” or “secondary toxicosis”. Non-target animals – wildlife and pets – can be killed as a result, including birds, hawks, eagles, vultures, dogs, cats, foxes and others. Humans, including children can also come into contact with poisoned, contaminated animals.

If you are using a traditional pest control company, tell them you do not want poison (or glue traps) used. If there is a big enough market for exclusion and humane solutions, the poison will eventually stop. Currently, the poison cycle equals profits for pest control.

Preferred Pest Control Companies




  • Resident or Business complains about rats and calls pest company.
  • Instead of looking at why rats are present (attractants) such as: ivy, garbage, water, pet food left outside, etc.,
  • Pest Control Operator puts out poison BAIT.
  • Poison bait boxes are now in your community.
  • A rodent smells BAIT and eats poison. One feeding will kill, BUT death takes several days. The rodent grows weaker and is easily caught by beneficial predators.
  • Pest control operator refills bait boxes each month and sends monthly bill to business, homeowner, HOA, etc.
  • Other rats smell BAIT, are attracted to the area and also eat the poison BAIT.
  • Pest company has now guaranteed a rat problem because they are always putting out food for rats! Ensuring a monthly payment to them! This is their “bread & butter.”
Poison Cycle

Poison Cycle

Effective wildlife management resolves wildlife conflicts with the most comprehensive management techniques available to include the following methods, when possible:

  • Humane exclusion & Repellency
  • Population control
  • Habitat modification
  • Conservation & Research

A comprehensive approach to managing a wildlife conflict must strictly adhere to all federal and state laws, regulations and county ordinances.


Lethal control methods should generally be considered a last resort for effective, long-term wildlife management. Lethal methods are appropriate as a first step or primary approach if there is risk to public safety or human health; significant or irreversible environmental damage; significant economic impact and/or permanent damage to property. All lethal methods should be carefully researched to determine what the most appropriate method is depending on species and wildlife conflict.


ACS Wildlife Removal is a full-service Fairfax County wildlife removal company. This is very different from a regular Fairfax County pest control company. The pest control companies spray poison to kill insects. This is not at all similar to wildlife removal. ACS Wildlife Removal performs a full inspection of the home or property, and determines why the animal(s) are there, and if inside a building, how the animals got inside. All animals (including rodents) are trapped and removed, or if possible, removed from the building using special exclusion devices. Once the animals are gone, preventative repairs are essential, and cleanup is sometimes recommended.


Rodent control must be done in a very specific way. First off, the most important thing is that all the openings that rats and mice can use to enter a house be sealed. Then all the rodents must be physically trapped and removed. Never, ever use poison! Most Fairfax County exterminators will just use this lazy poison technique to kill rodents, and it causes more harm than good – dead stinky rats, and it doesn’t solve the problem.

Usually, rat poison is used to kill a raccoon or groundhog, and although it might work, it will generally take a long time, in some cases – 4 weeks or more. As you can probably imagine, this will be a long and painful death, with the animal suffering with related conditions of the poisoning, rather than the poisoning itself – blood loss, internal bleeding and even anemia. These are all things that have proven to be very painful – is it really worth it? You are already ending the raccoon or groundhog’s life; do you really want to put it through that much pain beforehand? There are so many risk factors that you are going to need to put some serious thought into if you decide to use poison. Firstly, are your children going to be safe? Secondly, are you going to kill your dog or cat, or even other household pets in the community? Thirdly, could you be the cause of secondary poisoning? This is when a predator eats the carcass of the raccoon or groundhog that has died as a result of poisoning, thus transferring the poisoning residue to another animal. This could potentially kill wildlife that you may actively be encouraging into your garden. If you really want to get rid of that raccoon or groundhog, there are so many other options open to you that poisoning should really be a last resort, especially if you are not willing to put your time and effort into researching it first.

Read more about how to get rid of rats.:


HUMANE HINTS: NEVER attempt to poison rats. The only way to solve a rat problem in a house is to find the entry holes and seal them shut. You can actually use one-way exclusion funnels rather than traps.


Clean your house!


Poisons. Rat poison is the least effective, though cheapest way to try get rid of rats.


Attract natural predators of rats to your home. You can get a dog or a cat to deter the rats away, but this doesn’t always work. The most effective predator of keeping the rat population to a minimum is owls. Try to build a nesting box to attract them to your home, but they will not help with the rats already in your home.




Routine Home Checks


By doing routine home checks, you can locate any holes that need to be sealed to keep rats from entering. When doing this, it’s important that you look into small dark crawl spaces that aren’t necessarily visible. These are the areas where rats will more than likely get in. Make sure that all of your doors have bristle strips on them, because it is nothing for a rat to squeeze it’s behind through an opening that’s as small as 1 cm. Another thing that you should check during your routine home check is pipes. Believe it or not, rats have been known to get into your home through broken pipes leading from the sewer.



Ultrasonic Rat Control Repellant


Ultrasonic rat control repellants give off a sound that is totally annoying to rats making them turn the other direction before they even think of moving towards your home. The best part about these repellants is that humans are not able to hear them. The drawback is that if you already have an infestation of rats and don’t know it, they could actually become immune to the sound and they’ll never pay any mind to their eviction notice.



Peppermint Oil


If you want a deterrent to use against rats that is natural, peppermint oil is another option you can consider. Peppermint oil has an odor that rats despise and it seems to work well enough considering exterminators have often used it to change the course of rats and force them into cages. What you can do is place the peppermint oil around the inside of your home along the edges of the wall or you can place the oil along the route you think the rats travel most frequently based on their activity. Exterminators have found it useful to use peppermint soaked rags as a placing over the rat’s holes. This action is supposed to drive the rats out of the holes and into the trap, cage or bag. However, there may be more rats in your home than you’re aware of and this calls for the attention of a professional who can get them all out at one time easily and quickly.



Toilet Cakes
Everyone knows about toilet cakes considering they are what keeps our toilet bowls extra fresh and clean, but what does it have to do with repelling rats? Well, rats hate the scent of toilet cakes. They are somewhat like mothballs because eventually they dissolve. Take several toilet cakes and crumble them into small pieces. Throw them in rat holes and nests to drive rats away. The only problem with using this as a repellant is that it doesn’t last very long and if it gets into your skin, it will definitely burn you. This make this repellant dangerous in households where curious little ones reside.



What Else Might Work
There are a few things that can prove to be effective but keep in mind that their effectiveness may be limited. Some people, including exterminators and pest control experts suggest peppermint oil. Peppermint oil will be somewhat efficient but you have to be careful not to get peppermint extract as that does not do anything to repel rats. The smell of the peppermint oil seems to work however so you may want to soak some cotton balls or a towel and put them in the place where the rats are. You can direct the rats to a different location by doing that. You may be able to draw them all outside this way, although often once they are in a home they are very difficult to get out. It is more common to use these around the outside of the home as prevention. Predator urine is also semi effective in controlling a rat problem. Rats see animals like cats, foxes and others as predators so that is what you should work with if you want some success.

Where should I relocate a trapped rat?

Try spraying your feed with chili or cayenne pepper. Birds have no sense of taste, but as a mammal, squirrels do. There are also several commercial feeds sold that come pre-treated.

Small rodents such as squirrels, mice, and rats are not considered to be common rabies carriers.

[Added June 25, 2019]

When a bobcat mother and her kitten curled up together on the UC Santa Cruz campus in early September, the kitten couldn’t have known its mother was dying of rat poison. But Duane Titus noticed her lethargy and mangy fur, so he suspected that anticoagulants were making her bleed inside.



“It’s really hard to look at that and feel OK as a human knowing that we’ve probably had a hand in it,” said Titus, a wildlife capture specialist with Wildlife Emergency Services, a nonprofit based in Moss Landing.



The bobcat kitten ran off when Titus approached, and the mother died that night. Tests revealed three kinds of rat poison in her body, two of which were “second-generation anticoagulants” — poisons recently deemed too dangerous for public sale by the state of California and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.



About 73 percent of 492 wild animals tested in California from 1995 to 2011 had second-generation anticoagulants in their bodies, according to the California Department of Pesticide Regulation. The animals included mountain lions, hawks, owls and endangered San Joaquin kit foxes. Some animals had up to five different kinds of rat poison in their livers.



They take up to a week to kill, so rodents can ingest many times the lethal dose. The sick rodents are then vulnerable to predators. And when predators such as bobcats eat poisoned rodents, the poisons can build up in their bodies and persist for months



Companies that used to sell second-generation anticoagulants to consumers are switching to other poisons, such as first-generation anticoagulants and a nerve toxin called bromethalin. First-generation anticoagulants are less toxic than the second-generation, but they can still cause secondary poisoning in predators, McMillin said. Bromethalin is highly dangerous to pets because it doesn’t have an antidote, said Ahna Brutlag, a veterinary toxicologist with the Pet Poison Helpline.



Western Exterminators does not use poison in homes, but for businesses the poisons are “a very important tool,” Katz said.



But Owens-Viani said there is no responsible way to use the poisons. While bait stations may prevent larger animals from eating poison directly, she said, they can’t stop predators from eating poisoned rodents.



“It’s not like the old roach motels where the roaches check in and they don’t check out,” Owens-Viani said. “The mouse goes in, eats the bait and comes back out as a little toxic time bomb.



There are many ways to combat rodents without poison, such as closing off entrances to buildings, removing sources of food and shelter, and putting out traps. And many pest control companies use poison in addition to non-toxic methods. Tony Cabanilla, a pest control technician with Western Exterminators who operates in the Santa Cruz area, said he turns to poison as a last resort for customers with difficult rodent problems.



But people often turn to poison too soon, said Allen Fish, director of the Golden Gate Raptor Observatory in Marin County and co-founder of Raptors Are The Solution.



The most effective approach, some experts say, is to let predators do their jobs. A single family of barn owls can eat up to 3,000 rodents per breeding season, WildCare’s Kacmarcik said.



Pratt has never used poison, but that wasn’t enough to save one of the first owls that hatched on his property. She died from rat poison last year, a few miles from where she was born.



But by the time she collapsed on a porch with her insides leaking blood, she had no doubt caught thousands of rats, mice and gophers for the Novato community.


Rat poison killing bobcats and other wildlife


What to do about wild rats


Norway and black rats can be a source of major conflict in urban settings and proper trash management is key to dealing with them


Adapted from the book Wild Neighbors



Rats are incredibly hardy animals who have never shown any problem adjusting to change. Usually that change is the introduction of a new poison, as humans constantly work harder and harder to exterminate these animals. But perhaps no other animal resists such attempts better than the rat.


Rather than looking for more powerful and potentially dangerous ways to kill rats, the only real answer to people’s conflicts with these animals is to alter the habitats in which they choose to live to make them less attractive and acceptable.



Common conflicts and solutions


Food: Rats will eat anything a human will, and more. But worse damage is done by their urine and feces which are left behind on any uneaten food.


Burrows: Although rats may create damage with their burrowing, it’s usually more superficial than structural.





Tolerating rats is not something many people want to do. For many reasons people and rats are unlikely to coexist peacefully. But coexist we will, as perhaps more than any other wild animal, rats have adapted to living among humans. That we do not generally tolerate their presence does not mean that we need to use dangerous and inhumane methods to destroy them—or accept a no-holds-barred way to controlling their numbers.



The best way to control rats is to discourage them from taking up residence in the first place. Typically, conditions that support high rat populations are left until there is a real crisis at hand. Then the poisons are used or trapping employed to reduce the population, only to leave unaddressed the cause of the problem in the first place. Any effort to limit rat populations must be followed by taking the necessary steps—exclusion and sanitation—to make sure the same problems never happen again.



Identifying rat signs




• Droppings.
• Gnawed holes up to two inches wide in baseboards or at doorframes (indicates they’ve been there a while).
• Smudge marks (body oils) on walls.
• Sounds of movement in walls and attics.
• The family pet staring intently at a blank wall.




Burrows may indicate the presence of rats, but could also indicate other burrowing animals such chipmunks. Never attempt to control a wildlife problem without being sure what species of wildlife you are dealing with.


To find out if the burrow is in current use, loosely fill it with soil or leaves and check it in a day or two to see if it has been reopened.



Keeping rats out


Rats can enter buildings through many openings:


• Holes as small as 1 inch wide (about the size of a quarter).
• Heating vents.
• Gaps anywhere electrical conduits, utility or air conditioning lines, or water pipes enter a building.


Suggested techniques


• Seal holes and other appropriate openings with heavy-weight material (1/4-inch hardware cloth or heavy-gauge screening is recommended).
• Plug gaps in walls and floors with copper mesh like that used for scouring pads.
• Finish sealing openings with caulking or foam insulation. Because rats can gnaw through these, though, combine them with wire mesh.





Varpel Rope® is registered as a repellent for mice and rats. The active ingredient is used in making mothballs. No repellent has ever been found to work permanently on rats, so in using any that is sold for that purpose, keep this in mind.



Modifying habitat


Good sanitation is the best and most economic way to control rats. Follow these steps to keep rats away or to keep their numbers in check:


• Clear away any rubbish piled close to buildings to expose burrows and openings that rats might use to get in.
• Store food in rat-proof containers, such as galvanized cans with tight-fitting lids. This includes birdseed, grass seed, and other possible foods kept in garages and/or outbuildings.
• Store and dispose of garbage properly, so that rats can’t get into it.
• If you feed your pets outside, leave the food out for just long enough to be eaten, and then remove it.
• Clean up pet droppings from the yard every day.
• Remove old wood or rubbish from the property since these are regular rat hangouts.


Where rats continue to be a problem around buildings, you can use an L-shaped barrier of either hardware cloth or concrete to prevent burrowing along foundations long-term. Bury the footer about 12 inches deep and extend it out from the foundation about 12 inches. When a rat tries to dig into the foundation he won’t be able to get past the barrier.



Lethal control


There are no truly humane ways to kill rodents, only methods that are less inhumane. Rats are killed with poisons, snap traps, glue boards, and maze-type traps that drown them. Based on what is known about these methods, the traditional snap trap, and perhaps the newer traps that use an electrical charge to stun and kill, seems to be the least inhumane. This doesn’t mean that rats won’t suffer in these traps—they almost certainly will.


With the use of lethal control, animals will suffer. So keep in mind, the need to control rats is a largely the result of lack of cleanliness in the immediate environment.



• S. Anthony Barnett, The Story of Rats (2001, Allen & Unwin)
• Robert Sullivan, Rats: Observations on the History and Habitat of the City’s Most Unwanted Inhabitants (2004, Bloomsbury)

What to do if my landloard put rat poison in the common areas of my apartment building but didn’t notify us and our dog ate it and we had to take her to the vet?

Question Details: She knows we have dogs; we paid a pet deposit. We have $400 in vet bills. Is she liable for not disclosing the poison to her tenants?

[PA]Landlord put down supposedly illegal rat poison in our apartment, caused 1k+ in vet bills for out dog, now is claiming they never put poison down. What do we do?
On Thursday we came home to see a slip of paper stating that the maintenance exterminator had come through, which we were not told about. We had previously called, but that order ticket had already been completed and we haven’t had a problem since. They aren’t supposed to come in without 24 hour notice, but ok, we were going to talk it over when everyone got home.
I took a gander at the traps, but it looked like they hadn’t down anything, so I figures they had just checked the traps and left.
On Friday night, our dog came out of the kitchen with a whole bunch of blue powder on his face and beard. We checked around the kitchen and saw that they had placed down poison in a totally unsecured tray. It was behind the oven, which is 6 inches from the wall.
We rushed him to the vet immediately, since I knew the faster we got him to the vet, the better it would be for him. The vet told us the possible poisons that it could be. The one that he currently is being treated for due to low prothrombin levels was one the vet said was uncommon because it is illegal. But we were unaware of which poison it was at the time.
We called emergency maintenance to see if they knew the type of poison they use. They were unable to tell us, said that it was an off brand D Con, and said they could send a maintenance member up to our apartment to check the packaging. The maintenance staff was unable to identify the poison, but took the poison and the tray and pushed the oven flush to the wall.
We had to have our dog stay overnight due to the fact that they were unable to tell us the poison, and if symptoms started that night, they would be neurological symptoms.
Thankfully, it turned out to be the illegal anticoagulant, which he is now being treated for.
We went to management yesterday since we had all of the bills regarding it for the next 3 weeks (he needs a followup blood test after he finishes his vitamin K). Management was really helpful, honestly.

They let maintenance know about the issue. Maintenance is now claiming they never put down poison and never put down poison in any apartment. Obviously, the residents of our apartment know we didn’t put it down.


So, we know they are trying to cover up some straight negligence here. What do we do? We don’t really want to move out and break our lease.

I am renting from Peak Properties and they have these black boxes full of poison for rat control. My dog ingested rat poison and almost died. There was blood all around my apartment. It is the fault of the landlord since he advertised the building as “pet friendly” but put poison in direct access to dogs and people. What should I do?

Rat-proofing a building is the only sure way to deter rats.

To capture rats, smear some peanut butter on a piece of cardboard and add a dab of the Loganberry Paste to the peanut butter. Place this in the back of the trap and set the traps along walls in areas frequented by the rats—i.e., places where you’ve seen droppings in the past. Be sure to check the traps hourly!


Seal holes larger than 1/4 inch in diameter, cracks in the walls and floors, and spaces around doors, windows, and plumbing.

To live-trap rats, purchase a couple of Havahart Chipmunk Traps #0745 from Tomahawk Live Trap and bait them with Trapper’s Choice Loganberry Paste, which can be ordered from U-Spray at 1-800-877-7290.


To capture rats, smear some peanut butter on a piece of cardboard and add a dab of the Loganberry Paste to the peanut butter. Place this in the back of the trap and set the traps along walls in areas frequented by the rats—i.e., places where you’ve seen droppings in the past.


Be sure to check the traps hourly! The little animals will be hungry, thirsty, and frightened, and they may die if left in the traps too long. Traps should be disabled when not in use and during cold weather. Release rats within 100 yards of where they were caught. Releasing a rat into a strange area will almost surely result in his or her death.



But you can also make your own effective, humane rat trap with a garbage can. Here’s how:


  • Place dry oatmeal and a dab of peanut butter in a plastic 50-gallon drum. Set the drum in an area frequented by rats. Lean a flat piece of wood against the rim of the drum, or construct a stairway of books or bricks that the rats must climb in order to get to the rim. The rats will jump into the drum for the food but will be unable to climb back up the steep, slippery surface.
  • Remember, check the trap hourly and disable it when this isn’t possible and during cold weather! When a rat has been caught, put on heavy gloves, take the garbage can outside, and release him or her according to the instructions above. Make sure all entry points are sealed in order to prevent rats from coming back in!


What if your child or dog (or a neighbor’s pet) finds some poison dragged away from your careful controls by a critter before he dies a painful death? And poison, both in the manufacture and use, poses risks to the environment.



If rats are not a problem except in certain areas (for example, puncturing water pipes as pictured, or chewing wires in the engine compartment), treat the area with a natural deterrent.



PETA suggests whipping up a potent concoction of salad oil with horseradish, garlic, and plenty of cayenne pepper. Let the oil sit several days, then strain it. Use a spray bottle to coat surfaces with the rodent deterrent.



Live traps, like the Havahart two-door rat and squirrel trap ( shown above are favored by many people with a heart for even the most annoying animals.
However, keep in mind that releasing an animal more than 100 yards (100 meters) away from its point of origin is not humane according to PETA, so if you don’t want a re-run of mouse vs man, a little animal suffering must ensue.



Inventive types may want to build a better mousetrap.

We have heard ideas ranging from putting a piece of wood with peanut butter in a bucket… to people who are so convinced they built a better mousetrap, and are selling their ideas in an e-book on building a humane mousetrap with materials easily found at home.

Check Out These Popular Articles on Rodent Removal:



Rat problems can be unsettling to say the least. That’s why Havahart® offers humane rat traps with highly sensitive trip plates to ensure an effective and harmless catch. To accompany these humane products, Havahart® has a variety of helpful resources related to rat removal so you can learn about the trapping process and find the solution that works for you.



How To Trap Rats — Check out our convenient step-by-step trapping instructions featuring placement advice and a few expert tips to ensure that your rat catching efforts are always a success.


Getting Rid of Rats — Rats are destructive and disturbing to any property owner. Read our comprehensive guide to develop a control regimen that will suit your needs and protect your home or business from damage.


Best Baits for Rats — Not sure how to get rats into your traps? Find out more about recommended baits to tempt rats and learn how to place them in your trap for the highest catch rates.



Critter Ridder for Rat Infestations — Once you’re done trapping, discover how granular animal repellents such as Critter Ridder® can help you keep the rats from returning for good by affecting smell and taste.

DTI: How to catch a mouse without a mousetrap

Best Mouse Trap Ever DIY Humane Mousetrap Green Rat Trap for capture and release Rat Eats Moth

Rat & Mouse Baits—Dangerous For Cats & Dogs… Know the signs



Many cats and dogs will be the first to take the bait


Each autumn and winter, there is a concerning rise of dog and cat poisonings due to rat and mouse poisons (rodenticides) that are seen in veterinary hospitals and animal ERs throughout the world.

Unfortunately, cats and dogs will often be the first to take the bait. And as if that weren’t enough, they can also be affected by eating poisoned rodents! Signs of rodenticide toxicity can be seen within hours to days, depending on the type of rodenticide used.

 Rodenticides are very good at their “job”… killing. And these compounds don’t care whether they’re in a rat/mouse or your cat or dog, they are indiscriminate killers.



All rat and mouse poisons are not the same


While many of the more common rodenticides kill by causing prolonged bleeding, not all do! Some kill by causing kidney failure, while others kill through their devestating effect on the cellular metabolism throughout the body. This difference in “mode of action” is extremely important, as they each carry their own prognosis and require different treatment. Check out this article for more information on the differences (i.e., how they kill) between the various types of rodenticides.

Bait Stations: Some traps are designed so rodents can get in and eat the poison, but not a cat or dog. These are safer than unprotected poison, but not completely safe. There’s always the chance of a poisoned rodent leaving the trap and then being eaten by your cat or dog (this is called “relay toxicosis” or “secondary toxicosis”).

Poisons Used to Kill Rodents Have Safer Alternatives



All these birds were victims of “second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides” used by exterminators, farmers, and homeowners.



…even a little second-generation rodenticide kills nontarget wildlife.

Both first- and second-generation rodenticides prevent blood from clotting by inhibiting vitamin K, though the second-generation products build to higher concentrations in rodents and are therefore more lethal to anything that eats them.



What makes second-generation rodenticides so non-selective is that they kill slowly, so rodents keep eating them long after they’ve ingested a lethal dose. By the time they expire, or are about to, they contain many times the lethal dose and are therefore deadly to predators, scavengers, and pets.

But the EPA has declared them too dangerous for public use and ordered them off the general market. They’re still widely available, however, because stores have huge stocks and because a recent court decision has allowed three of the largest manufacturers to defy the order.

In 2011 she found rodenticides in 86 percent of the raptor livers she examined


There’s no safe place or safe delivery system for second-generation rodenticides. After a rodent partakes, it stumbles around for three to four days, displaying itself as an especially tempting meal not just for raptors but for mammalian predators, including red foxes, gray foxes, endangered San Joaquin kit foxes, swift foxes, coyotes, wolves, raccoons, black bears, skunks, badgers, mountain lions, bobcats, fishers, dogs, and house cats—all of which suffer lethal and sublethal secondary poisoning from eating rodents. Deer, nontarget rodents, waterfowl, waterbirds, shorebirds, songbirds, and children suffer lethal and sublethal poisoning from eating bait directly.


A four-year survey (1999 to 2003) by the Environmental Protection Agency found that at least 25,549 children under age six ingested enough rodenticide to suffer poisoning symptoms. Currently about 15,000 calls per year come in to the Centers for Disease Control from parents whose children have eaten rodenticides. Even if you place bait where children can’t get it, rodents are apt to distribute it around your house and property.

Insects may be picking it up and passing it to the songbirds that eat them.

The company put out these tamper-proof boxes. Then on August 3, 2012, my beautiful, five-year old golden retriever, Franz, was acting strange. His gums were snow white; back then I didn’t know what that meant. He weighed 90 pounds. We had to carry him downstairs on a sheet, and he died on the way to the vet’s. Franz was a wonderful dog.

Altmeyer paused, then continued, her voice cracking. “The pest-control people told me the bait wasn’t dangerous, that there was no secondary poisoning. I used to throw the dead rats over the wall; I would never do that now. The local vets see lots of poisoned dogs because the farmers indiscriminately put the stuff out in their orchards. One woman didn’t have the money to pay for treatment for her poisoned dog so she was going to sell her washer and drier. The vet had to tell her, ‘Keep your machines; I can’t save your dog.’”

There can be no better example of the deadliness of second-generation rodenticides than collateral damage on Rat Island. Found dead along with the rats were 46 bald eagles, at least 320 glaucous-winged gulls, one peregrine falcon, and 53 other birds representing 24 species.

I really question, as does your EPA, whether every homeowner needs a sledge hammer when a flyswatter will do. The companies don’t see it that way; once they have a product, they need to sell a certain volume to make it profitable

Owens Viani then cofounded Raptors are the Solution (RATS), a national alliance of citizens, nonprofit groups, and local governments that educates consumers and municipalities about safe methods of rodent control and the dangers of second-generation poisons. “My neighbor was going to throw those birds [the two Cooper’s hawks] in the garbage can,” she says. “A lot of people don’t even know what they are. I think we’re just seeing a tiny percent of what’s happening.” (Owens Viani went on to serve as development director for Golden Gate Audubon, stepping down in November to devote her time to RATS.)

Not only are these alternatives safer for people, pets and wildlife, they are, in the long run, more effective because they don’t take out the mammals and birds that keep rodents in check. With second-generation poisons you’ll get a spectacular initial kill. But a year or two later rodents will come storming back, as Jeannine Altmeyer can attest. You’ll then be fighting a war without allies.

Owners beware: Poisoning from this rodenticide is tough to treat



Pet owners using rodenticides should be aware that cats and dogs are susceptible to the products’ poison, and veterinarians fear an increase in bromethalin toxicity in pets because of a ban on brodifacoum. Bromethalin is the active ingredient in Assault, Fastrac, Gladiator, Rampage, Talpirid and Vengeance, and it causes brain and spinal cord swelling characterized by weakness, incoordination, seizures, paralysis and death. There is no definitive diagnostic test and no antidote, note veterinarians Lee Pickett and Jennifer Coates. Supportive treatments are available but they are intensive, and animals that survive are often left with neurological deficits. Vetted blog (3/12), (Reading, Pa.) (3/11)

Owners beware: Poisoning from this rodenticide is tough to treat

Bill Regulating Super-Toxic Rodenticides Advances Out Of California Assembly



Rodenticides are poisoning California’s native wildlife. Rats who consume these poisons are in turn consumed by other wildlife, resulting in secondary poisoning and contamination of the food chain. The California Department of Pesticide Regulation’s 2018 analysis of 11 wildlife studies determined super-toxic rodenticides are poisoning a wide range of animals including mountain lions, bobcats, Pacific fishers, barred owls, and endangered San Joaquin kit foxes.



P-47, the famous mountain lion studied by researchers since 4 weeks old, was found dead last month in the central Santa Monica Mountains. Necropsy results indicate he likely died from rat poison. Testing on his liver determined


P-47 was exposed to six different anticoagulant rodenticide compounds.


Though California banned consumer use of SGARs in 2014, wildlife poisoning has continued. The California Department of Fish and Wildlife’s database of mountain lion deaths reveals anticoagulant rodenticides were found in the livers of 63 out of 68 deceased mountain lions between 2015 and 2016.


“These dangerous poisons are killing California’s iconic wildlife,” said Animal Legal Defense Fund Executive Director Stephen Wells, sponsor of the legislation. “Safer and less expensive options exist that don’t jeopardize our wild animals, as well as children and companion animals who inadvertently consume super-toxic rodenticides. I applaud the California Assembly for passing AB 1788.”

Raptors Are the Solution (RATS) educates people about the ecological role of birds of prey in urban and wild areas and about the danger they face from the widespread use of rat poison. RATS is a fiscally-sponsored project of Earth Island Institute, rated a Four Star Charity by Charity Navigator. RATS raises all of our own funds through grants and donations. We partner with other nonprofits, agencies, scientists, cities, and others to work toward eliminating toxic rodenticides from the food web.

Our goal is to see all anticoagulant and other poisonous rodenticides taken off the market and no longer used by pest control companies due to their dangers to children, pets, and wildlife.

Anticoagulant and other rat poison products designed to kill rodents are also killing birds of prey, pet dogs and cats, and many species of wildlife, including several endangered species. The mate of famous New York City red-tailed hawk Pale Male died after ingesting a poisoned rat. These products are also poisoning children, even when the products are used in accordance with the directions on the packages. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), between 1999 and 2003, 25,549 children under the age of six had poisoning symptoms after exposure to rodenticides. Seventy-two percent had been exposed to a second-generation anticoagulant rodenticide, brodifacoum.

Is rat poison our new DDT? Read an excellent summary by Urban Carnivores. And if you are interested in seeing some of the (many) scientific studies that have been done about wildlife and pets and poison go here.

Most large pest control companies still use poison in their bait boxes. If you hire a pest control company, insist that they not use poison. Demanding poison-free solutions helps reduce the market for poison.




Many scientific studies:

Scientific Studies on Rodenticides, Wildlife, and Pets

A review: poisoning by anticoagulant rodenticides in non-target animals globally



Abstract: Worldwide use of anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) for rodents control has frequently led to secondary poisoning of non-target animals, especially raptors. In spite of the occurrence of many incidents of primary or secondary AR-exposure and poisoning of non-target animals, these incidents have been reported only for individual countries, and there has been no comprehensive worldwide study or review. Furthermore, the AR exposure pathway in raptors has not yet been clearly identified. The aim of this review is therefore to comprehensively analyze the global incidence of primary and secondary AR-exposure in non-target animals, and to explore the exposure pathways. We reviewed the published literature, which reported AR residues in the non-target animals between 1998 and 2015, indicated that various raptor species had over 60% AR- detection rate and have a risk of AR poisoning. According to several papers studied on diets of raptor species, although rodents are the most common diets of raptors, some raptor species prey mainly on non-rodents. Therefore, preying on targeted rodents does not necessarily explain all causes of secondary AR-exposure of raptors. Since AR residue-detection was also reported in non-target mammals, birds, reptiles and invertebrates, which are the dominant prey of some raptors, AR residues in these animals, as well as in target rodents, could be the exposure source of ARs to raptors.

Anticoagulant Rodenticides : Secondary Poisoning of Wildlife in California

Hazard, Risk and Physiologically-based Pharmacokinetic Model for Anticoagulant Rodenticides in Kestrels and Owls


Rodents can consume and spoil crops, serve as disease vectors, and can devastate remote island ecosystems when introduced by anthropogenic activities. Starting in to 20th century, rodenticides were developed and introduced for the control of these commensal species. Regrettably, some rodenticides pose a significant hazard to target wildlife.



The Challenge: Anticoagulant rodenticides have been identified as being hazardous to predatory and scavenging birds on a global scale. Restrictions on the sale, distribution and packaging of some second generation anticoagulant rodenticides (e.g., brodifacoum, difethialone, bromadiolone and difenacoum) have been instituted by the US EPA, and will likely result in expanded use of first-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (e.g., chlorophacinone, diphacinone). The risk posed by anticoagulant rodenticides to wildlife is inadequately characterized, and toxicological data are needed to better evaluate the threat of these compounds non-target organisms.



The Science: Data on the toxicity of chlorophacinone, diphacinone and brodifacoum are being collected in American kestrels and Eastern screech-owls. Measurement endpoints include blood clotting time, hematocrit, histopathological lesions, overt signs of distress, and survival. The half-life of anticoagulant rodenticide residue in tissues is also being determined. These data are employed in both deterministic and probabilistic risk assessments, and in the generation of dietary- and tissue residue-based toxicity reference values associated with prolonged clotting time. A pharmacokinetic model for diphacinone in various species of wild birds is under development in predatory birds and will assist in further evaluating the hazard of this rodenticide.



The Future: The acute oral toxicity of diphacinone was found to be over 20 times greater in American kestrels than in Northern bobwhite and mallards. More importantly, at environmentally realistic dietary concentrations, chlorophacinone and diphacinone have been shown to prolong clotting time and cause other toxicological effects in kestrels and owls. Their hazards to predatory birds are greater than predicted by studies in mallard ducks and bobwhite quail. Results of recent studies now indicate the potential for latent and protracted effects of combinations of anticoagulant rodenticides encountered by free-ranging raptors residing at the urban-agricultural interface. Hazard, Risk and Physiologically-based Pharmacokinetic Model for Anticoagulant Rodenticides in Kestrels and Owls


Rodenticide incidents of exposure and adverse effects on non-raptor birds


Abstract: Interest in the adverse effects of rodenticides on birds has focused primarily on raptors. However, non-raptor birds are also poisoned (rodenticide exposure resulting in adverse effects including mortality) by rodenticides through consumption of the rodenticide bait and contaminated prey. A literature search for rodenticide incidents (evidence of exposure to a rodenticide, adverse effects, or exposure to placebo baits) involving non-raptor birds returned 641 records spanning the years 1931 to 2016. The incidents included 17 orders, 58 families, and 190 non-raptor bird species. Nineteen anticoagulant and non-anticoagulant rodenticide active ingredients were associated with the incidents. The number of incidents and species detected were compared by surveillance method. An incident was considered to have been reported through passive surveillance if it was voluntarily reported to the authorities whereas the report of an incident found through field work that was conducted with the objective of documenting adverse effects on birds was determined to be from active surveillance. More incidents were reported from passive surveillance than with active surveillance but a significantly greater number of species were detected in proportion to the number of incidents found through active surveillance than with passive surveillance (z = 7.61, p < 0.01). Results suggest that reliance on only one surveillance method can underestimate the number of incidents that have occurred and the number of species that are affected. Although rodenticides are used worldwide, incident records were found from only 15 countries. Therefore, awareness of the breadth of species diversity of non-raptor bird poisonings from rodenticides may increase incident reportings and can strengthen the predictions of harm characterized by risk assessments.

See also:

Anticoagulant rodenticide use, non-target impacts and regulation: A case study from Australia



Abstract: The impacts of anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) on non-target wildlife have been well documented in Europe and North America. While these studies are informative, patterns of non-target poisoning of wildlife elsewhere in the world may differ substantially from patterns occurring in Australia and other countries outside of cool temperate regions due to differences in the types of ARs used, patterns of use, legislation governing sales, and potential pathways of secondary exposure. Most of these differences suggest that the extent and severity of AR poisoning in wildlife may be greater in Australia than elsewhere in the world. While many anecdotal accounts of rodenticide toxicity were found – especially in conjunction with government control efforts and island eradications – no published studies have directly tested rodenticide exposure in non-target Australian wildlife in a comprehensive manner. The effects of private and agricultural use of rodenticides on wildlife have not been adequately assessed. Synthesis of reviewed literature suggests that anticoagulant rodenticides may pose previously unrecognised threats to wildlife and indigenous people in Australia and other nations with diverse and abundant reptile faunas relative to countries with cooler climates where most rodenticide ecotoxicology studies have been conducted. To address the identified knowledge gaps we suggest additional research into the role of reptiles as potential AR vectors, potential novel routes of human exposure, and comprehensive monitoring of rodenticide exposure in Australian wildlife, especially threatened and endangered omnivores and carnivores. Additionally, we recommend regulatory action to harmonise Australian management of ARs with existing and developing global norms.

Assessment of anticoagulant rodenticide exposure in six raptor species from the Canary Islands (Spain)



Abstract: Anticoagulant rodenticides are highly toxic compounds that are widely used for pest control of rodents, but that also may threaten the wildlife’s health. This work aimed to assess the exposure to first- and second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) in six birds of prey species from the Canary Islands (Spain). The concentrations of seven widely used ARs were determined by LC–MS/MS in 104 liver samples of six species of birds of prey (Buteo buteo, Accipiter nisus, Falco pelegrinoides, Falco tinnunculus, Asio otus, and Tyto alba). We determined that 61% of the livers had detectable residues of at least one AR. The most frequently detected AR was bromadiolone, which was detected in 60.3% of the positive cases. The detection frequencies of these compounds varied widely, depending on the species. More than 75% of the A. nisus, T. alba, and A. otus individuals had detectable rodenticide residues in the liver. However, F. tinnunculus exhibited the highest concentrations of AR, with median values above 100 ng/g w.w. We did not detect first-generation ARs in any of the samples. When grouped, nocturnal species exhibited higher AR concentrations than diurnal species (P < 0.001). The residue levels were higher among small mammal-eaters than bird-eaters (P < 0.01). While most animals exhibited no macroscopic signs of coagulation disorders, approximately 35% exceeded the threshold levels of toxicity, which suggests that these compounds could weaken these animals in their natural environment. In conclusion, the control of rodent populations by ARs suggests that these compounds will enter the food chain and thus threaten the vulnerable populations of raptors on the Canary Islands. Our findings require authorities to ban or strictly control the use of these rodenticides in the natural environment for the conservation of raptors and other predatory species.

Rate of exposure of a sentinel species, invasive American mink (Neovison vison) in Scotland, to anticoagulant rodenticides



Abstract: Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are highly toxic compounds that are exclusively used for the control of rodent pests. Despite their defined use, they are nonetheless found in a large number of non-target species indicating widespread penetration of wildlife. Attempts to quantify the scale of problem are complicated by non-random sampling of individuals tested for AR contamination. The American mink (Neovison vison) is a wide ranging, non-native, generalist predator that is subject to wide scale control efforts in the UK. Exposure to eight ARs was determined in 99 mink trapped in NE Scotland, most of which were of known age. A high percentage (79%) of the animals had detectable residues of at least one AR, and more than 50% of the positive animals had two or more ARs. The most frequently detected compound was bromadiolone (75% of all animals tested), followed by difenacoum (53% of all mink), coumatetralyl (22%) and brodifacoum (9%). The probability of mink exposure to ARs increased by 4.5% per month of life, and was 1.7 times higher for mink caught in areas with a high, as opposed to a low, density of farms. The number of AR compounds acquired also increased with age and with farm density. No evidence was found for sexual differences in the concentration and number of ARs. The wide niche and dietary overlap of mink with several native carnivore species, and the fact that American mink are culled for conservation throughout Europe, suggest that this species may act as a sentinel species, and the application of these data to other native carnivores is discussed.

The prevalence and correlates of anticoagulant rodenticide exposure in non-target predators and scavengers in Finland



Abstract: The most common rodent control method worldwide is anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs), which cause death by internal bleeding. ARs can transfer to non-target predators via secondary exposure, i.e. by consuming contaminated rodents. Here we quantify the prevalence of seven AR substances in the liver tissues of altogether 17 mammalian or avian predator or scavenger species in Finland. In addition, we identify the environmental and biological factors potentially linked to secondary AR poisoning. No previous AR screenings have been conducted in the country, despite the widespread use of ARs and their potential impacts on the high levels of the ecosystem food chain. ARs were detected (≥0.3 μg/kg) in 82% of the 131 samples. The most prevalent and the AR with highest concentrations was bromadiolone (65% of samples). In 77% of the positive samples more than one (2–5) different ARs were detected. Of the environmental variables, we only found a weakly positive relationship between the coumatetralyl concentration and the livestock farm density. Conversely, overall AR concentration and number, as well as the concentration of three separate ARs (coumatetralyl, difenacoum and bromadiolone) differed among the three species groups tested, with the group “other mammals” (largely represented by red fox and raccoon dog) having higher values than the groups presented by mustelids or by birds. ARs are authorized only as biocides in Finland and a national strategy on risk management (e.g. for minimising secondary poisoning of non-target species) of ARs was adopted in 2011. Based on these results it appears that the risk mitigation measures (RMMs) either have not been followed or have not been effective in preventing wide scale secondary exposure. Continued monitoring of AR residues in non-target species is needed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of current RMMs and a need for new ones to reduce the risk of secondary poisoning.

Long-Acting Anticoagulant Rodenticide (Superwarfarin) Poisoning: A Review of Its Historical Development, Epidemiology, and Clinical Management



Abstract: Long-acting anticoagulant rodenticides (LAARs) inhibit vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR). Related bleeding may present a diagnostic challenge and require administration of blood component therapy, hemostatic agents, and vitamin K. This article intends to provide the reader a comprehensive understanding of LAAR poisoning. An exhaustive literature search of PubMed, Science Direct, US National Library of Medicine Toxicology Data Network, and Google Scholar yielded 174 reported cases of LAAR poisoning from which clinical data were extracted and reviewed. In addition, 25 years of epidemiologic data from the American Association of Poison Control Centers was reviewed. In the United States, on average, there were 10 413 exposures reported with 2750 patients treated annually. For 25 years, there were 315 951 exposures reported with nearly 90% among children and more than 100 000 patients treated in a health care facility. Fortunately, only 2% of all exposures result in morbidity or mortality. Inhalational, transcutaneous, and oral routes of exposure have been documented. Most exposures are unintentional. The most frequently reported bleeding sites are mucocutaneous, with hematuria being the most common feature. Deaths were most commonly associated with intracranial hemorrhage. Long-acting anticoagulant rodenticide–induced paradoxical thrombosis and thrombotic complications accompanying hemostatic therapy have also been observed. Most patients present with coagulation assay values beyond measurable limits. Long-acting anticoagulant rodenticides have an extremely high affinity for VKOR compared with warfarin, characterized by rebound coagulopathy and bleeding after initial treatment and the need for high-dose, long-term therapy with vitamin K1. Treatment of acute hemorrhagic symptoms often required intravenous vitamin K1 in excess of 50 to 100 mg; chronic maintenance with 100 mg PO vitamin K1 daily was the most frequently used dose required to suppress coagulopathy. Treatment courses averaged 168 days. Adjunctive hemostatic therapy with recombinant factor VIIa and prothrombin complex concentrate has been reported, and phenobarbital has been used to expedite LAAR metabolism.

Second generation anticoagulant rodenticides in predatory birds: Probabilistic characterisation of toxic liver concentrations and implications for predatory bird populations in Canada



Abstract: Second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs) are widely used to control rodent pests but exposure and poisonings occur in non-target species, such as birds of prey. Liver residues are often analysed to detect exposure in birds found dead but their use to assess toxicity of SGARs is problematic. We analysed published data on hepatic rodenticide residues and associated symptoms of anticoagulant poisoning from 270 birds of prey using logistic regression to estimate the probability of toxicosis associated with different liver SGAR residues. We also evaluated exposure to SGARs on a national level in Canada by analysing 196 livers from great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) found dead at locations across the country. Analysis of a broader sample of raptor species from Quebec also helped define the taxonomic breadth of contamination. Calculated probability curves suggest significant species differences in sensitivity to SGARs and significant likelihood of toxicosis below previously suggested concentrations of concern (< 0.1 mg/kg). Analysis of birds from Quebec showed that a broad range of raptor species are exposed to SGARs, indicating that generalised terrestrial food chains could be contaminated in the vicinity of the sampled areas. Of the two species for which we had samples from across Canada, great horned owls are exposed to SGARs to a greater extent than red-tailed hawks and the liver residue levels were also higher. Using our probability estimates of effect, we estimate that a minimum of 11% of the sampled great horned owl population is at risk of being directly killed by SGARs. This is the first time the potential mortality impact of SGARs on a raptor population has been estimated.

Veterinary Medicine, October 2002, peer-reviewed
Anticoagulant rodenticides: Deadly for pests, dangerous for pets



Many people put out rodenticide baits to keep these pests from becoming permanent residents. Anticoagulant rodenticides are popular choices. But these rodenticides can harm other animals in the house as well. The prognosis for pets that have ingested anticoagulant rodenticides depends on the length of time between exposure and treatment, so you must diagnose and institute appropriate therapy immediately.

They were also formulated to be highly palatable to rodents. Because of this, second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides are both appealing and extremely toxic to nontarget species, especially domestic dogs

An animal owner may be unaware that a pest control operator has placed these baits if the owner lives in a rental property or has recently moved to a new home.

Finally, keep in mind that rodenticides are commonly used in malicious poisonings, and must be considered if the clinical signs are consistent, even in animals that are thought to be unlikely to have encountered the agent.

Studies conducted at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences show that one in five dogs has rat poison in its body.
Published 17. January 2016 – 16:33 – Updated 22. June 2017 – 13:21
Many dogs have rat poison in their bodies

 “We know that a lot of poison is used in apartment buildings to keep down the rat and mice populations. If it turns out that the poison ingested by dogs originates from natural drainage then it would be reasonable to assume that children may be exposed to the same. They like to taste things and put things in their mouths. It is important that we quickly determine what this means for animals and, not least, people.

Hungry Owl Project



Our mission is to reduce the need for pesticides and rodenticides by encouraging natural predators through conservation of habitat, nesting boxes and education. Join our email list to learn how you can help owls.

IPM is Integrated Pest Management. Here’s an analogy: you are going to build a shed. Would you be able to build that shed with just one tool? No, you would need a variety of tools. Similarly, IPM is a way of solving pest problems using multiple tools. These include the use of nesting boxes where appropriate, trapping where appropriate, and most importantly: sanitation and exclusion. IPM, in our opinion, does NOT include the use of poison. Rodenticides are not part of the solution, they are part of the problem.

Exclusion professionals first inspect the structure to find all the ways rodents are coming in, knowing that rats only need ½” of space for entry! By using inspection and trapping, the pros know what type of rodent they are tracking, thereby signaling the best methods to dissuade the rodents from taking up residence in your structure. Once all the entry points are identified then rodent-proof materials are used to seal these openings.


Has there been any attempt to seal off holes in the exterior of the building?
Tools like poison and glue traps have a high rate of secondary poisoning and injury to non-target animals. Poison is touted as a quick fix, but it’s called “bait” for a reason.


Bait attracts. Therefore, as long as you have “bait” out for them, they will keep coming. If you use a pest company, that insures them a monthly fee for refilling the boxes. Pretty clever, eh?

In Virginia it is illegal to


  • destroy or molest the nest or young of a squirrel � 29.1-521,
  • set a trap where it would be likely to injure persons, dogs, stock or fowl � 29.1-521,
  • not visit all traps once each day and remove all animals caught � 29.1-521,
  • transport, release, or relocate a squirrel anywhere other than the property it was caught on 4VAC15-30-50,
  • and poison any animal (including squirrels) other than rats and mice on your property. 4VAC15-40-50


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